Understanding Mortgages: The Basics
Applying for a mortgage is a big financial step, and the mortgage offer you are given can depend on a number of factors. There are a range of different types of mortgage lenders who may assess various aspects of your financial situation to determine how much money they are willing to lend you, and the terms under which you will pay it back.
How Are Mortgages Calculated?
When you apply for a mortgage, lenders can analyse different components of your finances:
- Credit Report – Your credit report contains information about your credit history.
If your credit
history shows lenders that you have borrowed money (within your limit) and made repayments on time
over a long period, this can positively affect your credit score.
Your score is calculated based on the lender’s assessment of your credit report and information provided as part of your application. However, if your history shows poor financial behaviours (i.e. taking a loan and not making repayments), this could negatively impact the score you are given, and may make it more difficult to successfully apply for a mortgage.
- Income – Lenders use your basic salary or wage to help gauge your financial
situation, as well as
reviewing any overtime, bonuses, or commission. Other sources of income that could be taken into
account are child benefits, family tax credits, maintenance payments, or income from investment
- Outgoings – Lenders will want to see details and evidence of your outgoings to
assess the financial
commitments you have. This helps them judge if you will be able to afford the mortgage. Contractual
payments such as rent, electricity and gas bills, phone and internet bills, child support agency
payments, school fees, loan agreements, and credit card repayments all count as possible
- Deposit – The size of your deposit can impact the interest rate you are offered.
(LTV) a potential home can tell you how much of the property you would own compared to the amount
secured against the mortgage.
For example, if you had a £25,000 deposit on a house worth £250,000, your deposit would count for 10% of the property price (which is the part you would own), while the loan-to-value would be the remaining 90% (which is the part secured against the mortgage). Having a bigger deposit reduces the LTV, and may lower the interest rate on your mortgage repayments.
Typical Mortgage Lenders
Mortgages in the past were usually between the borrower and the lender, most commonly a bank or building society. However, buyers can now borrow from a range of different mortgage providers.
Traditional and High Street Banks & Building Societies
- Going direct to a bank or building society can give you access to mortgage deals that may otherwise
be unavailable if you go through a middleman or broker.
- However, this can also limit your choices, as you’ll only see deals from that provider, and they
may not necessarily be more desirable.
- Some banks may provide discounts to existing customers for their loyalty.
- Mortgage brokers act as middlemen between the borrower and the lender. As many brokers will evaluate
number of different deals from various lenders, they offer a wider range of deals than one specific
- Some lenders may provide deals exclusively through brokers that wouldn’t otherwise be available to
- Brokers can also provide a level of convenience – you may only need to give your details once and
broker can use these to find the best deals.
- Mortgage brokers may charge extra fees for their service.
Alternative Banks & Mortgage Providers
Some borrowers are also looking to supermarket banks for their mortgages. As these alternative banks are relatively new – it can be worth researching and shopping around before making a decision.
Repaying the Mortgage
There are two parts to the mortgage that you have to pay off – the capital (the money you borrowed) and the interest (the cost of the money you borrow).
A common way to pay back a mortgage loan is through a repayment mortgage, which involves paying both the interest and the capital over the term of the agreement. The mortgage balance should decrease with every month of payment, and as long as repayments are made on time, the mortgage should be paid in full at the end of the agreed term.
Some buyers opt for an interest only mortgage - you only pay the interest on the amount borrowed each month. Your monthly payments may be lower than a repayment mortgage, but the capital (the money borrowed) will still need to be paid back. Lenders may ask for a larger deposit for interest only mortgages, and/or may require you to have a repayment plan in place to pay off the original amount at the end of the term. Repayment plans can include stock and share ISAs, pensions, investment bonds, shares, unit trusts, regular saving plans, and other properties or assets.
Some lenders offer a combined mortgage which allows you to use both interest-only and repayment loan methods to pay off the mortgage. However, some of the capital is will still owed at the end of the term, and will need to be paid off.
Fixed vs Variable
The interest rate with which you make repayments can be fixed or variable.
A fixed interest rate will stay the same for the length of agreement. Fixed rate deals can last between 2-5 years, with some lasting as long as ten years. If the base rate of the Bank of England falls, borrowers won’t benefit from the lower rate, similarly if it rises, borrowers won’t have to pay the higher rate. Fixed rate mortgages may also include a charge for leaving the deal early, and borrowers may be put on a higher variable rate when the fixed term ends.
A variable interest rate can change with the Bank of England’s base rate or the lender’s decided rate. Variable rate deals may allow you to overpay or leave the deal at any time, and can come in different forms – discount, tracker, capped rate, or offset mortgages.
For more information on variable and fixed interest rates, take a look at our Interest Rate Types article.
More on Mortgages
Mortgages come in many different forms and your offer can depend on an array of variables, such as your credit score, income, expenditure, and the details of the house you want to buy. For more information on the different types of mortgages and how your credit score can affect a mortgage application, visit Equifax.co.uk.
- Saving for a mortgage deposit
- What is a mortgage interview?
- How do credit scores affect mortgages?
- What to consider when applying for a mortgage if you’re self-employed
- Buying property – what is conveyancing?
- Buying a property – what is gazumping?
- Types of home improvement loans
- What happens to a mortgage after death?
- Getting credit-ready before applying for a mortgage
- How do mortgage applications work?
- Selling property – what to ask estate agents
- Selling property – estate agents vs doing it yourself
- Buying a leasehold property
- Help to Buy: equity loan
- London Help to Buy
- Mortgages for self build and custom build homes
- Help to Buy: Shared Ownership
- What is a Help to Buy: ISA?
- Resources for first-time buyers
- Buy-to-let mortgages explained
- What is remortgaging?
- How mortgage repayments work
- Types of Mortgages
- Mortgage rates & decision
- Homebuyer's guide